Predisposing Factors for Periodontal Disease

From our previous article, you’ve learned that predisposing factors are plaque-retentive factors found in the mouth. They are physical or mechanical that, aside from encouraging plaque accumulation, also renders plaque removal more difficult. In this article, we will discuss the most common predisposing factors one by one.

Calcular Deposits:

Calcular deposits are the most common predisposing factor. It has a hard, porous, and irregular surface where plaque can accumulate easily. Removal of calcular deposits will be of great help in the prevention and treatment of periodontal Gum disease.

Irregularities on Tooth Surface:

These include cavitations caused by tooth decay, non-decay cavitations, and developmental abnormalities.  Irregularities located in-between the teeth and near the gum line are the ones that contributes the most to the development of periodontal Gum disease. Non-decay cavitations, or what dentists call non-carious lesions, include abrasion, ab fraction, and erosion. Abrasion pertains to loss of tooth structure by mechanical causes, usually incorrect and vigorous tooth brushing.

Abfraction, meanwhile, is loss of tooth structure near the gum line due to flexure of tooth. It is often related to bruxism, and it gets worse when combined with incorrect tooth brushing techniques.

With regards to developmental irregularities, the most common are the so-called enamel pearls. These are globules of enamel that form in the root area, more commonly in-between the roots of molars. They are about the size of a pinhead.

Tooth Malpositions:

Tooth malpositions can present as crowding, spacing, rotations, tipping, and drifting. All of these complicate oral hygiene, leading to increased plaque accumulation. Thus, dentists prescribe orthodontic treatment to correct the malposition and make oral hygiene much more effective. They may also recommend the use of adjuncts like interdental brushes, single-tufted brushes, and wood sticks to name a few.

Periodontal Gum Disease

Oral Appliances:

Much like tooth malpositions, oral appliance also promotes the development of periodontal disease by making oral hygiene more difficult. Such appliances include partial dentures, dental braces, and retainers. In partial dentures, fixed bridges are more likely to encourage plaque accumulation because they are much more difficult to clean compared to their removable counterparts.

Dental braces and retainers are challenging to clean as well. That is why adjuncts are also recommended for those who have any oral appliance in their mouth. Individuals with dental braces, in particular, are advised not to delay or miss an appointment with their orthodontist.

Erupting Wisdom Teeth:

Erupting third molars are difficult to reach given their position at the back of the mouth. If they are partially-erupted and the orientation is not upright like other teeth are, the problem is even worse. Plaque accumulation often leads to a condition called pericoronitis, where the gum tissue overlying the partially-erupted tooth, also known as operculum, gets inflamed. To get rid of it, a procedure called operculectomy is required. It is a minor surgery that involves removal of the operculum. Another treatment option, which will be more effective as it gets rid of the root cause, is the extraction of the tooth itself.

Faulty Restorations:

Faulty restorations pertain to poorly-constructed or poorly-fabricated restorations. These restorations are commonly characterized by having overhangs, poor contours, and subgingival margins. An overhang is the extension of the restoration beyond the confines of the tooth. In other words, it pertains to excess restorative material. More often than not, you can find it in-between teeth and at or near the gum line. The periodontal destruction caused by overhangs is a slow and painless process, causing an individual to be aware of it only when the destruction is extensive enough.

Poor contours, on the other hand, make the gum tissues less cleansable. Problematic contours may be over- or under contoured. Lastly, subgingival margins are margins placed below the gum line. These margins are difficult to reach, making plaque removal almost impossible.

As you can see, these predisposing factors have a huge role in the development of periodontal Gum disease. Some of them may be addressed by your dentist, but most are up to you to take care of. By eliminating these factors, their harmful effects on the mouth, periodontal disease can be prevented or arrested.

Risk and Modifying Factors for Periodontal Gum Disease

Now that you’ve learned about predisposing factors in detail, we will now move on and discuss two other equally-important factors that contribute to the development of Periodontal Gum Disease in San Macros – risk and modifying factors. Again, these factors are systemic factors that are either a medical problem or a behavioral condition. They differ in the sense that a risk factor increases your chances of developing the disease while modifying factor hastens disease progression by affecting the body’s immune response.

A certain condition can both be a risk and a modifying factor, and that’s what we will focus on in this article. Diabetes and tobacco use will be excluded since their effects are discussed exclusively in separate articles.

Disorders that Affect Immunity:

Immune disorders contribute to Periodontal Gum Disease in San Diego via any of these two ways. First is by exaggerating the body’s immune response to bacteria in plaque and second by impairing the response itself, making the individual at high risk for infection.

Periodontal Gum Disease

Disorders that affect immunity include immune depressive, gastrointestinal, metabolic (i.e. diabetes), hematologic (a.k.a. blood), and genetic disorders.


Stress is not a disease itself, but rather a serious condition that could lead to health problems such as high blood pressure and cancer to name a few. Recently, it also has been found to be linked to Periodontal Gum Disease.

According to studies, stress depresses the body’s immune system, making it more difficult to fight off disease-causing organisms.


Certain medications can impact periodontal health. These include birth control pills, calcium channel blockers, and antiepileptics to name a few. Birth control pills mess with periodontal tissues by exaggerating the body’s immune response to plaque, while calcium channel blockers and anti-epileptics cause gingival enlargement which makes plaque removal very difficult.


A diet that lacks in essential nutrients affects the health of the gums by compromising the body’s immune response. It can also worsen an existing periodontal problem. Vitamin C deficiency, otherwise known as scurvy, causes decreased collagen synthesis and poor wound healing.

In addition, studies have found that obesity increases one’s risk for periodontal disease. More can be learned about the association between these two in this article.

Endocrine Factors:

Endocrine conditions that could affect periodontal health are observed mostly in women. These are puberty, menstruation, pregnancy, and menopause. All of them cause an increase in estrogen and progesterone levels.

Some studies also mention that these hormones can encourage the growth of bacteria that causes Periodontal Gum Disease in San Diego. Each one of these four endocrine-related conditions manifests as different periodontal problems. You can learn more about them in detail by reading this article.

Effect of Periodontal Gum Disease in Men: An Introduction

How it Impacts their overall health

The incidence of Periodontal Gum Disease tends to be higher in men than in women. According to the American Academy of Periodontology, more than 50% of men have some form of periodontal disease.While it is only about 38% for women. Such difference could be due to the fact that men tend to have poorer oral hygiene and/or are less likely to pay a visit to their dentist. And be it for curative or preventive treatment. Or it could also be a result of habits like smoking which causes increased plaque and calculator deposits.

Achieving and maintaining periodontal health in men is of utmost importance, as it may influence their overall health. Listed and discussed below are some of health conditions associated with Periodontal Gum Disease in men.

Cardiovascular Health:

Lots of studies have proven the connection between periodontal disease and cardiovascular health. Periodontal Gum Disease in San Diego may play a role in the development of cardiovascular disease. And particularly of the condition called infective endocarditis. Both periodontal disease and endocarditis are chronic inflammatory conditions. And it is suggested that inflammation is the connection between the two.Periodontal Gum Disease

Prostate Health:

Periodontal Gum Disease is also linked to prostate health by the increased levels of PSA or Prostate-Specific Antigen. PSA is an enzyme normally synthesized and released in small amounts. The levels of this enzyme rise when the prostate becomes infected, inflamed, or cancerous.

According to research, men suffering from both periodontal disease and prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate) tend to have higher PSA levels compared to men who have either condition alone. This suggests the possible two-way connection between periodontal disease and prostate health.


Studies show that men with Periodontal Gum Disease, particularly those between ages 30 to 70 are more susceptible to developing impotence. The mechanism, according to researchers, is that the chronic inflammation associated with periodontal disease results. To damage of blood vessels all over the body, including those that supply the genitals.


Men who have or have had periodontal disease are said to be 14% more likely to develop cancer than those who don’t. The types of cancer associated with this oral health problem include pancreatic cancer, kidney cancer, and blood cancers. The study involved more than 50,000 male participants aged 40 to 75 years old.

The researchers did a 16-year follow-up from 1986 and 2002, and found. That more than 200 of the participants developed pancreatic cancer. Thus, they came up with a conclusion. That men who have had periodontal disease have more than 60% chance of developing pancreatic cancer compared to men who have no history of this oral health problem.

How Periodontal Gum Disease Helpful

Take note, though, that while there is a statistical association between the two diseases, the direct cause-effect relationship between them is yet to be established.

If you are dealing with periodontal disease and it seems to be affecting your health already. Don’t hesitate to consult your dentist and physician about it.  But it is also advised that you do your part in improving your oral health by practicing good oral hygiene.

Brushing your teeth thoroughly at least twice a day, flossing, and regular professional cleaning will help minimize your risk for Periodontal Gum Disease.

Seven Ways You Can Treat Gingivitis

Gingivitis is a mild form of periodontal (gum) disease that makes the gums turn red, become swollen, and more prone to bleeding.

Usually, there is little or no discomfort and the condition can be reversed with proper oral hygiene and dental treatment.

Though the disease is curable and mild, you cannot overlook it.

Untreated, gingivitis can turn into more destructive forms of periodontal disease and leads to illnesses such as diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and cardiovascular disorders.

It is vital to consult the dentist when you first experience symptoms.

Most Effective Method for Gingivitis Treatment: Consult Your Dentist!

See your dentist immediately if you suspect that you have gingivitis.

Your dentist will most likely clean your mouth to remove tartar, which is a breeding ground for bacteria, and suggest a new fluoride-rich toothpaste along with a proper oral hygiene routine.

You may have to visit your dentist frequently for a short period, but you can count on getting rid of the disease.

Other methods to treat gingivitis can be divided into two parts: Oral hygiene and homemade treatments.

Oral Hygiene:

The oral hygiene methods described here will help you reverse gingivitis and reduce the chances of it appearing again.

1. Avoid Sweet and Sticky Foods:

Stay away from candies and other sugar products.

If you absolutely have eat them, then make sure you eat them sparingly.

This is particularly important if you have children with gingivitis. It is vital to drill into them that sweets cannot be an all-day affair.

What is true of sugar products is also true of sticky foods, such as pizzas. Sugary and sticky foods stick to your gums and become a breeding ground for bacteria.

2. Brush Properly and Use Floss:

Another way to control gingivitis is to brush with care.

An effective method for cleaning your gum line is to hold your brush at an angle of 45 degrees and move it in a circular motion.

This technique cleans the area where your teeth meets the gums. Brushing is necessary, but it is not sufficient.

To remove the impurities hidden somewhere between your teeth, you can use floss. Flossing at least once a day is a way to stymie the spread of gingivitis.

3. Use an Antiseptic Mouthwash:

Antiseptic mouthwash fights bacteria in those places that cannot be reached by your toothbrush or floss.

You can kill many bacteria in your mouth and stop the spread of gingivitis if you use a mouthwash solution for at least 30 seconds after each brush.

Homemade Treatments for Gingivitis:

The three methods mentioned below are popular home-based treatments:

1. Salt gargle:

Dissolve 1/2 teaspoon of salt in a glass of lukewarm water and gargle. Repeat this procedure for several days.

2. Lemon juice mouthwash:

Squeeze an entire lemon into a glass of lukewarm water and rinse your mouth with it. Do this two times a day, right after you brush.

3. Chew a clove:

Chewing a clove can reduce the pain from swollen gums.

Though this article touches upon several ways to treat your gingivitis, speaking to your dentist is the safest and most effective method.

If you notice symptoms of gingivitis in you or your children, contact us immediately. We offer a highly-experienced and qualified dental team in gingivitis treatment.

You can contact us by calling (858) 755-8993 for our San Diego office or (619) 656-6785 for our Chula Vista location.