Predisposing Factors for Periodontal Disease

From our previous article, you’ve learned that predisposing factors are plaque-retentive factors found in the mouth. They are physical or mechanical that, aside from encouraging plaque accumulation, also renders plaque removal more difficult. In this article, we will discuss the most common predisposing factors one by one.

Calcular Deposits:

Calcular deposits are the most common predisposing factor. It has a hard, porous, and irregular surface where plaque can accumulate easily. Removal of calcular deposits will be of great help in the prevention and treatment of periodontal Gum disease.

Irregularities on Tooth Surface:

These include cavitations caused by tooth decay, non-decay cavitations, and developmental abnormalities.  Irregularities located in-between the teeth and near the gum line are the ones that contributes the most to the development of periodontal Gum disease. Non-decay cavitations, or what dentists call non-carious lesions, include abrasion, ab fraction, and erosion. Abrasion pertains to loss of tooth structure by mechanical causes, usually incorrect and vigorous tooth brushing.

Abfraction, meanwhile, is loss of tooth structure near the gum line due to flexure of tooth. It is often related to bruxism, and it gets worse when combined with incorrect tooth brushing techniques.

With regards to developmental irregularities, the most common are the so-called enamel pearls. These are globules of enamel that form in the root area, more commonly in-between the roots of molars. They are about the size of a pinhead.

Tooth Malpositions:

Tooth malpositions can present as crowding, spacing, rotations, tipping, and drifting. All of these complicate oral hygiene, leading to increased plaque accumulation. Thus, dentists prescribe orthodontic treatment to correct the malposition and make oral hygiene much more effective. They may also recommend the use of adjuncts like interdental brushes, single-tufted brushes, and wood sticks to name a few.

Periodontal Gum Disease

Oral Appliances:

Much like tooth malpositions, oral appliance also promotes the development of periodontal disease by making oral hygiene more difficult. Such appliances include partial dentures, dental braces, and retainers. In partial dentures, fixed bridges are more likely to encourage plaque accumulation because they are much more difficult to clean compared to their removable counterparts.

Dental braces and retainers are challenging to clean as well. That is why adjuncts are also recommended for those who have any oral appliance in their mouth. Individuals with dental braces, in particular, are advised not to delay or miss an appointment with their orthodontist.

Erupting Wisdom Teeth:

Erupting third molars are difficult to reach given their position at the back of the mouth. If they are partially-erupted and the orientation is not upright like other teeth are, the problem is even worse. Plaque accumulation often leads to a condition called pericoronitis, where the gum tissue overlying the partially-erupted tooth, also known as operculum, gets inflamed. To get rid of it, a procedure called operculectomy is required. It is a minor surgery that involves removal of the operculum. Another treatment option, which will be more effective as it gets rid of the root cause, is the extraction of the tooth itself.

Faulty Restorations:

Faulty restorations pertain to poorly-constructed or poorly-fabricated restorations. These restorations are commonly characterized by having overhangs, poor contours, and subgingival margins. An overhang is the extension of the restoration beyond the confines of the tooth. In other words, it pertains to excess restorative material. More often than not, you can find it in-between teeth and at or near the gum line. The periodontal destruction caused by overhangs is a slow and painless process, causing an individual to be aware of it only when the destruction is extensive enough.

Poor contours, on the other hand, make the gum tissues less cleansable. Problematic contours may be over- or under contoured. Lastly, subgingival margins are margins placed below the gum line. These margins are difficult to reach, making plaque removal almost impossible.

As you can see, these predisposing factors have a huge role in the development of periodontal Gum disease. Some of them may be addressed by your dentist, but most are up to you to take care of. By eliminating these factors, their harmful effects on the mouth, periodontal disease can be prevented or arrested.

Risk and Modifying Factors for Periodontal Gum Disease

Now that you’ve learned about predisposing factors in detail, we will now move on and discuss two other equally-important factors that contribute to the development of Periodontal Gum Disease in San Macros – risk and modifying factors. Again, these factors are systemic factors that are either a medical problem or a behavioral condition. They differ in the sense that a risk factor increases your chances of developing the disease while modifying factor hastens disease progression by affecting the body’s immune response.

A certain condition can both be a risk and a modifying factor, and that’s what we will focus on in this article. Diabetes and tobacco use will be excluded since their effects are discussed exclusively in separate articles.

Disorders that Affect Immunity:

Immune disorders contribute to Periodontal Gum Disease in San Diego via any of these two ways. First is by exaggerating the body’s immune response to bacteria in plaque and second by impairing the response itself, making the individual at high risk for infection.

Periodontal Gum Disease

Disorders that affect immunity include immune depressive, gastrointestinal, metabolic (i.e. diabetes), hematologic (a.k.a. blood), and genetic disorders.

Stress:

Stress is not a disease itself, but rather a serious condition that could lead to health problems such as high blood pressure and cancer to name a few. Recently, it also has been found to be linked to Periodontal Gum Disease.

According to studies, stress depresses the body’s immune system, making it more difficult to fight off disease-causing organisms.

Medications:

Certain medications can impact periodontal health. These include birth control pills, calcium channel blockers, and antiepileptics to name a few. Birth control pills mess with periodontal tissues by exaggerating the body’s immune response to plaque, while calcium channel blockers and anti-epileptics cause gingival enlargement which makes plaque removal very difficult.

Malnutrition:

A diet that lacks in essential nutrients affects the health of the gums by compromising the body’s immune response. It can also worsen an existing periodontal problem. Vitamin C deficiency, otherwise known as scurvy, causes decreased collagen synthesis and poor wound healing.

In addition, studies have found that obesity increases one’s risk for periodontal disease. More can be learned about the association between these two in this article.

Endocrine Factors:

Endocrine conditions that could affect periodontal health are observed mostly in women. These are puberty, menstruation, pregnancy, and menopause. All of them cause an increase in estrogen and progesterone levels.

Some studies also mention that these hormones can encourage the growth of bacteria that causes Periodontal Gum Disease in San Diego. Each one of these four endocrine-related conditions manifests as different periodontal problems. You can learn more about them in detail by reading this article.

Periodontal Gum Disease in Women

How it has something to do with the different phases of their life

A woman’s periodontal health is influenced by a number of factors. The most important of which is the fluctuating hormone levels. The two hormones that contribute to Periodontal Gum Disease San Marcos in the female are the sex hormones estrogen and progesterone. Both of these increase blood flow to the gum tissue, causing its increased sensitivity to plaque and other offending agents.

In addition, there are also some studies which say that increased levels of estrogen and progesterone actually promote a growth of disease-causing bacteria. As a result, the gums become easily swollen.

The following conditions are some of the instances where women’s hormones go out of whack, causing them to be more susceptible to periodontal disease.

Puberty:

During puberty, there is an increased level of progesterone which causes the gums to appear red and swollen. It is also likely to bleed easily upon slight manipulation. This reaction of the gum tissue can easily be reversed by removing the irritant. This can be done through meticulous oral hygiene practices and regular professional cleaning by your dentist.

Nonetheless, as pubertal period comes to an end, this reaction tends to lessen or tone down. Even so, it is still important to take good care of your oral health.

Periodontal Gum Disease

Menstruation:

Some women may also experience this so-called menstruation gingivitis. Which appears about three to four days prior to a woman’s period. And begins to clear up after her period has begun.

In some cases, the salivary glands may also become swollen.  While the tongue and the inside of the cheek may develop painful sores. Some women, though, don’t experience any changes at all. But for those who experience any discomfort, your dentist may recommend cleaning, topical anesthetics, or other special treatments to provide some relief.

Pregnancy:

Pregnancy has long been suggested by numerous studies as a possible risk factor for Periodontal Gum Disease, as it causes hormone levels to rise considerably. Gingivitis is present during the second month of pregnancy up to the eighth month, and it starts to wane during the ninth month.

To control the disease, your dentist may prescribe more frequent cleaning visits especially during the second trimester or early third trimester. Sometimes, an overgrowth of tissue called “pregnancy tumor” may show up during the second trimester.

The association between these two conditions is a two-way street as hormonal fluctuations during pregnancy may predispose to periodontal disease treatments in Chula Vista, while an infectious disease like periodontal disease poses a risk to the unborn baby’s health.

According to studies, periodontal disease causes pregnant women to have premature and/or low birth weight babies.

However, further studies are needed to confirm the effects of periodontal disease on adverse pregnancy outcomes. Still, experts recommend pregnant or planning-to-be pregnant women have a periodontal evaluation especially. If they notice some changes in their mouth during pregnancy.

Menopause:

A small percentage may also develop menopausal gingivostomatitis, which is described as dry, shiny gums that bleed easily. The color of the gums ranges from very pale to deep red. According to some experts, supplementation with estrogen may help relieve symptoms.

Every phase of a woman’s life brings about many changes, some of which are good while others are not-so-good. Such changes may include ones that affect your oral health.

If you start to see or feel any changes that you think may be related to any of the conditions above, talk to your dentist or periodontist. They will be happy more than happy to address any concerns you have regarding your oral health.